One approach I might try and experiment with would be to use the Live UI Inspector to inspect the button that submits the work item. I'd then try overriding the section the button is contained in and update the button configuration to add an action to refresh the section the work item list is contained in on click.
Obviously, there are other factors to consider, such as not overriding the button in a manner that displays in other areas of your application where you might not want this behavior.
But that's where I'd start, just to see if it works. And if it doesn't, then I'd come back here to see if anyone else has ideas. Because, I agree, surely someone has to have figured out an implementation for this by now.
You can try to make the worklist section show results from a Data Page. The Data Page can be set for refresh for every interaction. This is a possible solution, not sure about having a out-of-the-box feature for it.