To answer your question, we don't have "static" and "final" equivalent in Pega.
Though, Dynamic System Settings could serve the purpose of a global variable kind of concept, where data is stored at the global repository and it could be accessed throughout the application which is equivalent to static and final variable in Java.
Though logically static memory space(or function) is something which is shared between all the instances of the same class.
While Final concept in Java is to create a constant or variable which can't be overridden.
Both these features could be served by DSS which is global variable kind of things and could be used by all the nodes sharing the database.