With OOTB filters in grid, you can't achieve this. The metadata created for filters in grids are auto-generated. Instead you should try building you own Filtering criteria apart from grid and providing param(s) to grid to filter. Hope it will help.
Can you elaborate on the requirement ? do you want the gird to be refreshed or the entire section ?
If only the gird , then the List > Refresh List action persists the filters applied on a repeat grid. You can drop a button in the action top / bottom of the repeat grid and configure Refresh List on that button. That should retain the filters