If your requirement is to read file and parse data in it and apply some processing use File Listener along with Service File rules.
If your requirement is to integrate with other applications in realiable fashion where one of applications can keep the records in a queue and other connected applications can process queue record. Both one to one and publish subscribe behaviours are applicable. Research more on JMS.
I hope this clarifies your doubt. this is basic detail but do more research to understand.